CRISPR-Cas Technologies

CRISPR Cas system is sometimes referred to as "molecular scissors" that can cleave DNA sequences, allowing various forms of genome, and sometimes even epigenome editing. The most popular protein used in this system is Cas9. Sometimes, Cas12a (formerly known as Cpf1) is also used, as it has some distinct features. For example, it can target different sequences to Cas9 and control more genes at the same time.

Our knowledge of CRISPR-Cas systems has evolved dramatically over the years, and given its immense value in research, it will probably continue to do so. Although there are multiple areas where the performance of CRISPR-Cas systems must be improved before the technology can make it to mainstream use for medical purposes, every year brings new advancements that get us closer to this goal. Meanwhile, CRISPR-Cas systems can be used to improve various areas of industry, contributing to the wealth and wellbeing of societies worldwide.

This section provides a summary of the two most popular CRISPR-Cas systems to date- CRISPR-Cas9 and CRISPR-Cas12a, while also giving on overview of the multiple modifications that those systems have undergone since their discovery. It compares the performance of both Cas9 and Cas12a nucleases in prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms, plants, and animals. Furthermore, it introduces several less known alternative CRISPR-Cas systems employing Cas12b and Cas13, and their applications.

Explore the sections:

CRISPR-Cas systems explained from the very basics. This section focuses particularly on CRISPR-Cas9 and CRISPR-Cas12a systems.
Advancements that improve the editing efficiency or introduce new modification types: paired nickases, CRISPRi and CRISPRa, base editing, and multiplex genome editing.
Comparison of the performance of CRISPR-Cas9 and CRISPR-Cas12a in research setting in microorganisms, plants and animals.
Detailed explanation of high-specificity CRISPR-Cas12b and RNA-cleaving CRISPR-Cas13 and their performance in various model organisms.

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I used the following sources to create this section:

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